Among the multiple uses of the term model , is the one that associates the concept with a representation or scheme. Atomic , meanwhile, is what is linked to atom (the smallest amount of a chemical element that is indivisible and that has its own existence).
A atomic model , therefore, consists of graphically represent matter in its atomic dimension . The objective of these models is to make the study of this material level easier thanks to abstracting the logic of the atom and transferring it to a scheme .
There are different types of atomic models. He atomic model of Bohr or of Bohr-Rutherford For example, it is a quantized model of the atom that was developed to explain how electrons manage to draw orbits that are stable around the nucleus. This functional model is not based on the physical representation of the atom: instead, it is oriented to use equations to explain its operation.
He atomic model of Schrödinger , on the other hand, is a non-relativistic quantum model based on the resolution of the call Schrödinger equation for an electrostatic potential with spherical symmetry.
This character, the aforementioned Erwin Schrödinger, an Austrian physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933 for having carried out what was the development of the aforementioned Schrödinger equation that is considered the founder of the current atomic method . Through it, what is achieved is to describe the temporal evolution of what is a massive but not relativistic particle.
Specifically, as we said before, this scientist is considered the father of the current atomic model that is also known as the "Wave Equation." A denomination under which a mathematical formula is embedded that has as principles values such as the duality of matter, the so-called probability in a place of certainty, energy levels or stationary states as well as the presence of an atomic nucleus with respect to the known particles.
Another atomic model is that of Thomson , also know as pudding model . It is a theory proposed by Joseph John Thomson (who discovered the electron) about the atomic structure.
Finally we can mention the atomic model of Rutherford , devised by Ernest Rutherford to provide an explanation about the result of his experiments with gold foils. This physicist and chemist indicated that atoms have electrons and that they are rotating around a central nucleus. Said core, for Rutherford , would concentrate almost all of the mass and all the positive charge of an atom.
In the same way we cannot ignore Dalton's atomic model. At the beginning of the 19th century it would be when this approach came to light that, although it had certain errors, it was a very important milestone at that time and it was that it offered some important advances in regard to the structure of the matter.
Among the main pillars of this theory are ideas such as that matter is made up of particles called atoms, that atoms that belong to the same element are identical or that these atoms cannot be divided.