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Deductive method

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He Deductive method is a scientific method who considers that the conclusion is implicit within the premises . This means that the conclusions are a necessary consequence of the premises: when the premises are true and the deductive reasoning is valid, there is no way that the conclusion is not true .

The first descriptions of deductive reasoning were made by philosophers in the Ancient Greece , among them Aristotle . It should be noted that the word deduction comes from the verb deduct (from Latin I will deduce), which refers to the extraction of consequences from a proposal.

The deductive method achieves infer something observed from a general law. This differentiates it from the call inductive method , which is based on the formulation of laws based on the facts observed.

There are those who believe, like the philosopher Francis Bacon , that induction is preferable to deduction , since it allows moving from particularities to something general.

Among the examples that we can use to understand more exactly what the term deductive method means would be the following: if we start from the claim that all English are punctual and know that John is English, we can conclude by saying that, therefore, John is punctual.

In the field of Mathematics there is also much use of the said deductive method. Thus, in this matter we can find examples that prove it: if A is equal to B and B is equal to C, we can determine that A and C are equal.

When talking about this cited deductive method we have to underline that the same, in which the thought goes from the general to the particular, makes use of a series of tools and instruments that allow to achieve the proposed objectives of reaching the required point or clarification .

In this sense, we can state that summaries are often used, since they are the documents that allow a clear and concise focus on the essentials of an issue. However, it should also be noted that, in the same way, use is made of the synthesis and the synopsis.

But the list of procedures and tools goes much further. Thus, it could not ignore maps, graphs, diagrams or demonstrations. The latter in particular help especially to demonstrate that a particular principle or law is true, and for that purpose it is based on all established truths as well as logical relationships.

The deductive method can be divided according to result direct and immediate conclusion (in cases where the trial is produced from a single premise without others involved) or indirect and mediated conclusion (The major premise houses the universal proposition, while the minor premise includes the particular proposition: the conclusion, therefore, is the result of the comparison between the two).

In all cases, researchers who appeal to the deductive method begin their work by proposing assumptions (consistent with each other) that are limited to incorporating the main characteristics of the phenomena. The work continues with a logical deduction procedure that ends in the statement of the general laws .

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